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P2P银保监发布1号文件:细化融资担保公司监管规定

4月9日,中国银行保险监督管理委员会发布1号文件,对《融资担保公司监督管理条例》从许可经营、融资担保责任余额认定、融资担保公司资产划分及比例确定,以及银行业金融机构与融资担保合作注意事项等四个方面进一步细化。

《通知》中提及的四项配套制度分别是《融资担保业务经营许可证管理办法》《融资担保责任余额计量办法》《融资担保公司资产比例管理办法》和《银行业金融机构与融资担保公司业务合作指引》。

去年颁布的《条例》明确指出,设立融资担保公司,应当经监督管理部门批准。决定批准的,颁发融资担保业务经营许可证。此次配套文件中的《融资担保业务经营许可证管理办法》进一步细化融资担保业务经营许可证的颁发、换发、吊销、注销等相关规则,并对每家融资担保公司的经营许可证实行编号终身制。

《融资担保责任余额计量办法》则对不同融资担保业务确定不同的权重。为鼓励融资担保公司支持小微企业和“三农”,规定要求,单户在保余额500万元人民币以下且被担保人为小微企业的借款类担保业务权重为75%,单户在保余额200万元人民币以下且被担保人为农户的借款类担保业务权重为75%。相比之下,基金产品、信托产品、资产管理计划、资产支持证券等担保权重较高,为100%。

确定担保业务权重是为了计算融资担保责任余额,以防融资担保公司超额担保,造成经营风险。按照要求,融资担保公司的融资担保责任余额不得超过其净资产的10倍。不过,对小微企业和农户融资担保业务在保余额占比50%以上且户数占比80%以上的融资担保公司,前款规定的倍数上限可以提高至15倍。

值得注意的是,《通知》特别指出,对于2017年10月1日以前发生的保本基金担保业务,存量业务可不计入融资担保责任余额。

在担保集中度方面,配套文件延续了《条例》所设定的相关要求,但对债券担保业务重新设定了监管要求。按照新规,对被担保人主体信用评级AA级以上的发行债券担保,计算集中度时,责任余额按在保余额的60%计算。不过,对于债券担保业务的规定施行新老划断,即2017年10月1日前发生的发行债券担保业务,集中度指标继续执行原有监管制度有关规定;之后发生的发行债券担保业务,集中度指标则按照新办法执行。

《融资担保公司资产比例管理办法》则对融资担保公司的资产按照流动性和安全性由高到低依次划分为3类,并设定各级资产的最低或最高比例要求。

从对资产类型的划分看,有两个看点值得注意。一是可随时赎回或三个月内到期的银行理财产品划为I级,Ⅰ级资产不得低于资产总额扣除应收代偿款后的20%;Ⅰ级资产、Ⅱ级资产之和不得低于资产总额扣除应收代偿款后的70%。二是融资担保公司购买的信托产品、资产管理计划、基金产品、资产支持证券等属于Ⅲ级资产,Ⅲ级资产不得高于资产总额扣除应收代偿款后的30%,显示出监管层对融资担保公司专注主业,而非大规模投资金融产品的监管要求。

为强化融资担保公司的担保履约能力,新规还要求,融资担保公司净资产与未到期责任准备金、担保赔偿准备金之和不得低于资产总额的60%。

此外,为平稳过渡,新规对各级资产比例要求的达标期限予以一定宽限。新规要求,监督管理部门可根据实际给予不同时限的过渡期安排,但达标时限不应晚于2019年末。

《银行业金融机构与融资担保公司业务合作指引》则从两类机构合作、业务合作方面予以规范。按照要求,银担合作双方应当以书面形式签订合作协议,明确双方权利和义务。合作协议应当包括业务合作范围、合作期限、授信额度、风险分担、代偿宽限期、信息披露等内容。

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