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区块链闪电网络侧链能为比特币带来质的飞跃吗?

在现有的区块链项目中,比特币无疑是最成功的项目,也正是中本聪发布的比特币才将区块链这个技术概念带到人间,它天生自带去中心化,平等的理念被世人趋之若鹜地最求。仿佛就像原始人在黑暗中第一次看到了火花一样令人兴奋。

但是,随着比特币的广泛采用和交易量的迅速增长,容量不足的问题无可避免地凸显出来。每秒数笔交易的容量,与传统信用卡每秒数万笔无法相比。这成为比特币发展的巨大障碍。这个问题的出现、争论,和解决它的努力和尝试贯穿了整个比特币的发展历史,不但导致演化出了其他加密货币,也导致比特币本身多次分叉。

在解决这个问题的过程中,闪电网络,一个精巧、符合逻辑的比特币侧链出现在人们的视野里。

​闪电网络是什么?

比特币闪电网络(Bitcoin Lightning Network)由Poon和Dryja在2015年提出,它使用哈希锁技术,这是侧链中的一项典型技术,基于数学生产能摆脱中介的信任。

它的设计思路其实特别简单:小额交易比特币区块链之外处理,相当于银行接上支付宝,资金通过支付宝快速结算

但当闪电网络白皮书首次发表时,它所描述的想法实际上是与比特币协议是不兼容的——至少它是不安全的。为了能够像描述的那样启用闪电网络,相关开发者需要对比特币进行一些协议上的改变。

第一个改变的协议是新的时间锁定,它将使支付渠道能够抵抗比特币的延展性漏洞。然而,这个问题早在闪电网络白皮书发布之前就已经被解决了,并且在2015年得到了彻底的解决,在当时Peter Todd设计并提出的一种新的在比特币协议中实现了:CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV)。

后来,Bitcoin Core的开发者们意识到闪电网络与相关时间锁定的功能的表现甚至会更好。这些功能允许用户在另一笔交易被确认后,将比特币锁定在一个特定的时间点上。在使用闪电网络的情况下,用户可以无限期地打开他们的支付渠道,而CLTV 时间锁定则要求他们定期关闭他们的渠道。在2016年夏天,比特币网络上启动了一个名CheckSequenceVerify (CSV)的软分叉升级,以实现相对的时间锁定。

但闪电网络需要(至少是假定用户有良好的用户体验) 的最大协议改变是对任何比特币交易可延展性的修正。

在闪电网络白皮书发布的时候这被认为是一个巨大的挑战。当一个软分叉草案正在修复这一挑战的时候,开发者不确定这样的方案是否可行,并且认为网络需要硬分叉来解决这个问题。然后,到了2015年年底,Bitcoin Core的参与者意识到隔离见证(SegWit),作为Blockstream 的Elements Project的一部分可以作为一种反相兼容的软分叉部署在比特币上。

经过长时间的斗争,隔离见证的软分叉终于在2017年夏天被激活,这也为比特币的闪电网络的发展铺平了道路。

2018年2月,由于比特币披萨而享誉盛名的比特币传奇人物Lazlo Hanyecz宣布会通过闪电网络购买到了两张披萨饼!

现如今闪电网络仍处于早期阶段。大多数闪电网络的用户仍然是技术人员(通常是开发者),他们的使用也大多是带有实验性质的。虽然测试版软件是闪电网络发展主要的里程碑,但是开发和改进网络是一个持续进行的过程,而且相关人员在这方面还需要做很多工作,而闪电网络上关于路由、隐私和其它风险的公开问题也仍待解决。

闪电网络图

但毋庸置疑的是有朝一日闪电网络侧链完善之时,比特币将从现在大额储存真正走向小额支付,让更多的人受益。

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